THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY FRAMEWORK
The framework below can be used to illustrate any advocacy strategy.2 It is organized
around two main dimensions of an advocacy strategy—the audiences targeted (x-axis) and

ACTION

the changes desired (y-axis) with those audiences.

Litigation
Community Mobilization

Lobbying

Regulatory Feedback

Coalition Building

WILL

Champion Development

Media Advocacy

Public Will Campaigns

Political Will Campaigns

Communications and Messaging
Advocacy Capacity Building

AWARENESS

CHANGES

Community Organizing

Model Legislation

Leadership Development
Voter Outreach

Public Forums

Demonstration Programs

Public Awareness Campaigns
Public Polling
Public Education

PUBLIC

Policy Analysis/Research

Influencer Education

INFLUENCERS

Policymaker Education

DECISION!MAKERS!

AUDIENCES
Audiences are the individuals and groups that advocacy strategies target and attempt to
influence or persuade. They represent the main actors in the policy process and include
the public (or specific segments of it), policy influencers (e.g., media, community leaders, the
business community, thought leaders, political advisors, other advocacy organizations,
etc.), and decision makers (e.g., elected officials, administrators, judges, etc.). Strategies may
focus on just one audience or target more than one simultaneously.

2

The framework first appeared in Coffman, J. (2008). Foundations and Public Policy Grantmaking.
Paper prepared for The James Irvine Foundation.

2

Select target paragraph3